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Ep 150 Acute Kidney Injury – A Simple Emergency Approach to AKI

In this first part of our 2 part podcast series on AKI we answer questions such as: Is there any value in the BUN:Cr ratio in distinguishing prerenal from intrarenal disease? Why is nephritic syndrome one of the most important intrarenal causes to pick up in the ED? Is there any value in urine electrolytes for the ED workup of AKI? Is there a role for bicarb in patients with severe AKI? How can we choose wisely when it comes to imaging for patients with AKI? How can we utilize POCUS best in working up the patient with AKI? What are the indications for ordering a CK to look for rhabdomyolysis? At what CK level do patients typically develop AKI? How can the McMahon score help us manage rhabdomyolysis? What is the value of urine myoglobin in the workup of rhabdomyolysis? What are indications for dialysis in patients with rhabdomyolysis? What are safe discharge criteria for patients with rhabdomyolysis? and many more...

Ep 133 Emergency Management of Status Epilepticus

Among the presentations seen in the ED, few command the same respect as status epilepticus. It is, in itself, both a diagnostic dilemma and, at times, a therapeutic nightmare. There’s a reason it’s the very first domino to fall in the dreaded sequence “seizure, coma, death”. Status epilepticus can be nuanced to manage. Sure, most seizures self-abort or love an IV dose of lorazepam, but ask anyone who’s been down the propofol route, and they’re not likely to have forgotten the time they stared down a patient who just...would...not....stop...

Ep 132 Emergency Approach to Resolved Seizures

What is the essential list of immediate life threats with specific antidotes that we must know for the ED patient with a seizure? What are the key elements for distinguishing a true seizure from syncope? From Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure (PNES)? From TIA? From migraine? How do you distinguish Todd's Paralysis from TIA or stroke? What are indications for lactate and troponins in patients who present with a seizure? Do all patients with first time unprovoked seizures require anti-seizure medication in the ED? What is the preferred anti-seizure medication and route for ED loading for the patient with a first time seizure? Which patients who present with seizure require a CT head in the ED? What are indications and ideal timing for EEG for patient who present to the ED with seizure? and many more...

Ep 104 Emergency Management of Intracerebral Hemorrhage – The Golden Hour

There exists a kind of self-fulfilling prognostic pessimism when it comes to ICH. And this pessimism sometimes leads to less than optimal care in patients who otherwise might have had a reasonably good outcome if they were managed aggressively. Despite the poor prognosis of these patients overall, there is some evidence to suggest that early aggressive medical management may improve outcomes. As such, the skill with which you manage your patient with ICH in those first few hours could be the most important determinant of their outcome. In this Golden Hour you have a chance to prevent hematoma expansion, stabilize intracerebral perfusion and give your patient the best chance of survival with neurologic recovery.

Episode 65 – IV Iron for Anemia in Emergency Medicine

For years we’ve been transfusing red cells in the ED to patients who don’t actually need them. A study looking at trends in transfusion practice in the ED found that about 1/3 of transfusions given were deemed totally inappropriate. As we explained in previous EM Cases episodes, there have been a whole slew of articles in the literature over the years that have shown that morbidity and mortality outcomes with lower hemoglobin thresholds, like 70g/L for transfusing ICU patients (TRICC trial), patients in septic shock (TRISS trial), and patients with GI bleeds are similar to outcomes with traditional higher hemoglobin thresholds of 90 or 100g/L. We’re simply transfusing blood way too much! The American Association of Blood Banks in conjunction with the American Board of Internal Medicine’s Choosing Wisely campaign, as one of its 5 statements on overuse of procedures, stated, “don’t transfuse iron deficiency without hemodynamic instability”. So, in this episode with the help of Transfusion specialist, researcher and co-author of the American Association of Blood Banks transfusion guidelines Dr. Jeannie Callum, Transfusion specialist and researcher Dr. Yulia Lin, and 'the walking encyclopedia of EM' Dr. Walter Himmel, we give you an understanding of why it’s important to avoid red cell transfusions in certain situations, why IV iron is sometimes a better option in a significant subset of anemic patients in the ED, and the practicalities of exactly how to administer IV iron.

Episode 41: Hypertensive Emergencies

In this episode on Hypertensive Emergencies, Dr. Joel Yaphe, EM residency program director at the University of Toronto & Dr. Clare Atzema, one of Canada's leading cardiovascular EM researchers will discuss the controversies of how to manage patients who present to the ED with high blood pressure and evidence of end organ damage related to the high blood pressure. Hypertensive emergencies are a grab bag of diagnoses that all need to be treated differently. Hypertensive Encephalopathy, Aortic Dissection, Acute Pulmonary Edema, Pre-eclampsia & Eclampsia, Acute Renal Failure, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Intracranial Hemorrhage all need individualized blood pressure management.

Episode 40: Asymptomatic Hypertension

University of Toronto EM Residency program director, Joel Yaphe and cardiovascular EM researcher, Clare Atzema discuss the guidelines, controversies, pearls & pitfalls of Asymptomatic Hypertension in the ED. The literature is thin in this area, and there are many controversies: Does an elevated BP measured in the ED represent true essential hypertension? Do these patients need to be worked up? Are they at risk of serious morbidity and mortality? Should we treat these patients in the ED with antihypertensives? Should we send them home on antihypertensives? and many more......

Episode 4: Acute Congestive Heart Failure

Dr. Eric Letovsky and Dr. Brian Steinhart describe a practical way to approach patients with undifferentiated SOB and acute congestive heart failure, the utility of various symptoms and signs in the diagnosis of CHF, as well as the controversies surrounding the best use of BNP and Troponin in the ED. A discussion of the use of ultrasound for patients with SOB as well as the indications for formal Echo are reviewed. In the second part of the episode they discuss the management of acute congestive heart failure based on a practical EM model, as well as the difficulties surrounding disposition of patients with CHF.

Ep 160 Geriatric Trauma 2 Rib Fractures, Pelvic Fractures, Prognostication, Elder Abuse, Discharge Planning

In Geriatric Trauma Part 2 we answer questions such as: what are the indications for transfer to a trauma center in older patients with rib fractures and why? Can we accurately prognosticate older trauma patients in the ED? How can we best engage family members in goals of care discussions for the older trauma patient? What are the risk factors for elder abuse that we need to be aware of in the ED? How can we best minimize the risk for recurrent falls and bounce backs for the older trauma patient who is discharged from the ED? and many more...

Ep 159 Geriatric Trauma Part 1: The Under-Triaging Problem, Resuscitation, Airway, Head and C-spine Imaging, Clearing the C-spine

Just as pediatric patients are not small adults, geriatric patients are not just old adults. In this Part 1 of our 2-part EM Cases podcast series on Geriatric Trauma, Dr. Barbara Haas, Dr. Camilla Wong and Dr. Bourke Tillman answer questions such as: why are older patients under-triaged to trauma centers and how does that affect outcomes? What is the utility of the Shock Index in older patients? How should we adjust airway management for the older trauma patient? Which older patients do not require head or c-spine imaging after a ground level fall? Why is it challenging, yet of utmost importance, to clear the c-spine of a geriatric trauma patient as soon as possible? When can anticoagulation medications be safely resumed after an older person has sustained a minor head injury? and many more...

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