Rapid Reviews Videos on Pediatric DKA

In these short videos Eileen Cheung reviews the ED recognition, diagnosis and management of the often elusive Pediatric DKA including different management strategies for mild, moderate and severe DKA, use of sodium bicarbonate, management of cerebral edema, discharge criteria and more...

New Rapid Reviews Videos on IV Iron & Hyponatremia

Two classic EM Cases main episode podcasts, IV Iron for Anemia in EM with Jeannie Callum and Walter Himmel, and Emergency Management of Hyponatremia with Melanie Baimel and Ed Etchells are covered in the latest Rapid Reviews Videos by Taryn Lloyd and Nick Clarridge. Dr. Lloyd reviews how to avoid needless blood transfusions, the indications for IV iron and how to actually administer IV iron, while Dr. Clarridge reviews a novel approach, causes, complications and management of hyponatremia in the ED...

Episode 63 – Pediatric DKA

Pediatric DKA was identified as one of key diagnoses that we need to get better at managing in a massive national needs assessment conducted by the fine folks at TREKK – Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids – one of EM Cases’ partners who’s mission is to improve the care of children in non-pediatric emergency departments across the country. You might be wondering - why was DKA singled out in this needs assessment? It turns out that kids who present to the ED in DKA without a known history of diabetes, can sometimes be tricky to diagnose, as they often present with vague symptoms. When a child does have a known history of diabetes, and the diagnosis of DKA is obvious, the challenge turns to managing severe, life-threatening DKA, so that we avoid the many potential complications of the DKA itself as well as the complications of treatment - cerebral edema being the big bad one. The approach to these patients has evolved over the years, even since I started practicing, from bolusing insulin and super aggressive fluid resuscitation to more gentle fluid management and delayed insulin drips, as examples. There are subtleties and controversies in the management of DKA when it comes to fluid management, correcting serum potassium and acidosis, preventing cerebral edema, as well as airway management for the really sick kids. In this episode we‘ll be asking our guest pediatric emergency medicine experts Dr. Sarah Reid, who you may remember from her powerhouse performance on our recent episodes on pediatric fever and sepsis, and Dr. Sarah Curtis, not only a pediatric emergency physician, but a prominent pediatric emergency researcher in Canada, about the key historical and examination pearls to help pick up this sometimes elusive diagnosis, what the value of serum ketones are in the diagnosis of DKA, how to assess the severity of DKA to guide management, how to avoid the dreaded cerebral edema that all too often complicates DKA, how to best adjust fluids and insulin during treatment, which kids can go home, which kids can go to the floor and which kids need to be transferred to a Pediatric ICU.

Episode 60: Emergency Management of Hyponatremia

In this EM Cases episode Dr. Melanie Baimel and Dr. Ed Etchells discuss a simple and practical step-wise approach to the emergency management of hyponatremia: 1. Assess and treat neurologic emergencies related to hyponatremia with hypertonic saline 2. Defend the intravascular volume 3. Prevent further exacerbation of hyponatremia 4. Prevent rapid overcorrection 5. Ascertain a cause Dr. Etchells and Dr. Baimel answer questions such as: What are the indications for giving DDAVP in the emergency management of hyponatremia? What is a simple and practical approach to determining the cause of hyponatremia in the ED? How fast should we aim to correct hyponatremia? What is the best fluid for resuscitating the patient in shock who has a low serum sodium? Why is the management of the marathon runner with hyponatremia counter-intuitive? What strategies can we employ to minimize the risk of Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome (OSD) and cerebral edema in the emergency management of hyponatremia? and many more...