In this bonus EM Cases podcast, The Stiell Sessions 2, we have Dr. Ian Stiell discussing an update in Atrial Fibrillation 2014 management including the age-old question of rate control vs rhythm control, the new CHADS-65 algorithm for oral anticogulant therapy, the need to initiate anticoagulant therapy in the ED, the more aggressive use of the Ottawa Aggressive Protocol, the dangers of attempting to cardiovert unstable patients who are in permanent Atrial Fibrillation, the new 150 rule to help determine the likelihood of successful cardioversion and much more. Thanks to all the listeners who did the survey on clinical decision rules and the post-listen survey.
In the second part of this epic 2-part authoritative episode, Anticoagulants, PCCs & Platelets, we have Dr. Walter Himmel (also known as 'The walking encyclopedia of EM') along with Dr. Katerina Pavenski (Head of Transfusion Medicine at St. Michael's Hospital) & Dr. Jeannie Callum (Head of Transfusion Medicine at Sunnybrook Hospital) who will discuss the latest on comparative efficacy and reversal of Warfarin vs Dabigatran vs Rivaroxiban vs Abixaban, the use of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs), the ins and outs of thrombocytopenia & platelet transfusions, ITP, TTP, anti-platelet associated intracranial bleeds, indications for Tranexamic Acid & more...
Whistler's Update in Emergency Medicine Conference 2013 in Whistler, British Columbia is U of Toronto's case-based interactive small group EM conference. There were so may great talks with amazing clinical pearls that I decided to wade through the 18 hours of audio recordings and packaged some of the key highlights for you here......EM Literature Review 2012 by Dr. Joel Yaphe, Neonatal Resuscitation Pearls by Dr. Nicole Kester-Greene, Fever of Unknown Origin by Dr. Shirley Lee, Improving Cosmesis in Wound Management by Dr. Maria Ivankovic, Hepato-biliary Disease by Dr. Sara Gray, & Pediatric Cardiac & Respiratory Cases by Dr. Donna Goldenberg.
In this episode Dr. Clare Atzema, Dr. Nazanin Meshkat and Dr. Bryan Au discuss the presentation, etiology, precipitants, management and disposition of Atrial Fibrillation in the Emergency Department. The pros and cons of rate and rhythm control are debated, what you need to know about rate and rhythm control medications reviewed, and the strength of the Ottawa Aggressive Protocol discussed. The importance of appropriate anticoagulation is detailed, with a review of the CHADS-VASc score and whether to use Warfarin, Dabigatran or ASA for stroke prevention for patient with Atrial Fibrillation. We end off with a discussion on how to recognize and treat Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in the setting of Atrial Fibrillation.
In the 2nd part of this episode on Stroke, Dabigitran & Intracranial Hemorrhage Dr. Walter Himmel & Dr. Dan Selchen tell us everything the ED doc needs to know about the oral direct thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran and how to reverse a Dabigatran ICH. The ED treatment of stroke is reviewed including best medications and a simple way to remember BP goals. They review the management of ICH including BP goals, indications for neurosurgery, the role of recombinant Factor Vlla, and how best to reverse Warfarin-associated and platelet-associated ICH.
In Part 2 of this Episode on Acute Coronary Syndromes Risk Stratification & Management, the evidence for various medications for ACS, from supplemental oxygen to thrombolytics are debated, and decision making around reperfusion therapy for STEMI as well as NSTEMI are discussed. Finally, there is a discussion on risk stratification of low risk chest pain patients and all it's attendant challenges as well as disposition and follow-up decisions. Dr. Eric Letovsky, the Head of the CCFP(EM) Program at the University of Toronto, Dr. Mark Mensour & Dr. Neil Fam, an interventional cardiologist answer questions like: What is the danger of high flow oxygen in the setting of ACS? When, if ever, should we be using IV B-blockers in AMI patients? How can you predict, in the ED, who might go on to have an urgent CABG, in which case Clopidogrel is contra-indicated? Which anticoagulant is best for unstable angina, NSTEMI and STEMI - unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), or fonduparinux? Is there currenly any role for Glycoprotein 2b3a Inhibitors in ACS in the ED? When is thrombolysis better than PCI for STEMI? When should we consider facilitated angioplasty and rescue angioplasty? Which low risk chest pain patients require an early stress test? CT coronary angiography? Stress Echo? Admission to a Coronary Decision Unit (CDU)? and many more.......
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) can be difficult to diagnose. It's unclear who to work up. It's challenging if the patient is already taking blood thinners. Dr. Walter Himmel and Dr. Daniel Selchen discuss the key historical and physical examination maneuvers to determine whether patients with neurologic complaints have had a TIA or whether they have had a TIA mimic. They review the 3 best risk stratification rules including the ABCD2 Score to help us determine who needs to be admitted and who needs timely investigations to reduce vascular morbidity and mortality. The reasoning behind which patients require urgent carotid imaging, echocardiograms and advanced imaging such as CT Angiogram is explained, and the best medication choices are reviewed, as well as the indications for Clopidogrel, Aggrenox, Warfarin, Heparin and carotid endarterectomy in the managment of Transient Ischemic Attack. In the second part of the episode, a simple and practical approach to the patient with dizziness is presented, and a discussion on which patients with dizziness need urgent work-up and treatment for vertebrobasilar TIA.